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10: Ethernet - 10Gigabit Ethernet over optical fiber & copper part 5

10Gigabit Ethernet
In 2002, another ten times fater version was created and standardized as IEEE 802.3ae; it is 10Gigabit Ethernet. It transmits Ethernet frames at a rate of 10 Gigabit Ethernet per second (10 billion bits per second).  This version of Ethernet is different from the others because it supports only full-duplex over point-to-point topology using network switches,  without half-duplex and repeater hubs.

Given the fact that this version of Ethernet is powerful and functions at high speed, the cables, either copper or fiber, that are required must also be a high grade, such as copper CAT6a , Cat7, or better. Besides, the cables can only reach a distance of 100 metres as other copper cables. This version of Ethernet has taken time to be adopted on a large scale. It reached the pinnacle of adoption in 2007 up to 2012 when millions of ports were shipped. 10Gigabit Ethernet also has some sub-versions for either optical fiber or copper listed as what follows :

10Gigabit Ethernet over fiber

10GBASE-SR is a multi-mode optical fiber that uses 850 nanometres lasers.  The length of the cable depends on the type of the multi-mode used. It supports a link length of 28 metres on FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface), 33 metres on OM1,  82 metres on OM2, 300 metres on OM3 , and 400 metres on OM4.
0Gigabit Ethernet over optical fiber & copper

10GBASE-LR is a version that supports a link length of 10 km on single-mode optical fiber and uses 1310 nm lasers. 

10GBASE-LRM is a version specified in IEEE 802.3aq which allows distances up to 220 metres on standard Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) grade multimode fiber (MMF) as well as MO1, MO2, and  MO3.

10GBASE-ER is a version that functions over single-mode fiber, which uses 1550 nm lasers and supports a link length of up to 40 km.

10GBASE-ZR is a version that works over single-mode optical fiber  and supports a link length of up to 80 km.

10GBASE-LX4 is a version that works over multimode fiber and single-mode fiber and which uses wavelengths around 1310 nm. It supports a link length of up to 300 m over over FDDI-grade, OM1, OM2, OM3 multimode cabling, and 10 kilometres over SMF.
10GBASE-PR is a Gigabit Ethernet specified in IEEE 802.3av which utilizes 1270 nm lasers in the upstream direction and 1577 nm lasers in the down stream direction.

10Gigabit Ethernet over copper

10Gigabit Ethernet can run not only over fiber optics, but also twin-axial cabling, twisted pair cabling, and backplanes. The following are 10Gigabit Ethernet sub-versions that run over copper :
0Gigabit Ethernet over optical fiber & copper

10GBASE-T is a powerful version of 10Gigabit Ethernet standardized as IEEE 802.3an in 2006. It uses shielded or unshielded twisted pair cables and reaches a distance of up to 100 metres if Cat 6a is used, but when Cat6 is utilized, the cable can only stretch up to 55 metres.

10GBASE-CX4, standardized as 802.3ak-2004, was the first standard of 10G Ethernet that runs over copper. It supports a link length of up to 15 m.

SFP+ Direct Attach is a copper standard that uses a passive twin-ax cable assembly that connects directly into an SFP+ housing. It can reach a distance of up to 15 metres.
Backplane Ethernet is also a version of Ethernet, known as 802.3ap. It operates on copper printed circuit boards. It is used in backplane application like modular routers/switches and blade servers. Backplane Ethernet includes 10GBASE-KX4 which runs over four backplane lanes and 10GBASE-KR that operates over a single backplane lane.
The next lesson is a sequel to this one 
10: Ethernet - 10Gigabit Ethernet over optical fiber & copper part 5 Reviewed by BOUFTIRA on 3:50:00 PM Rating: 5

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